Cambongo Dam

Fotografia: Arquivo hoteisangola
Fotografia: Arquivo hoteisangola

Located in the central coastal zone of Angola, designated by the second name in its coastal part, but best known by the first in the medium and upper sectors.
Similarly, it happens with other rivers and their most important tributaries, as it happens with the two between which is the Cambongo-Negunza basin, the Cuvo-Queve to the north and the Cubal-Quicombo to the south. the enormous complexity of the river routes, either in the coastal sector, closer to the Ocean, where the elements of the Cambongo-Negunza basin cross a strip of about 28km in width of Mesozoic materials and later of the Sedimentary Edge, or in the interior, much more vast, of precambrian, metamorphic and eruptive rocks of the Ancient Massif
From its sources in massifs of the Marginal Mountain (altitudes of more than 2 000m), the river goes down the flat staircase to the sea, it arrives through a stretch of valley embedded in sedimentary rocks.
It reveals in most sectors, also the majority of its tributaries, traces imposed by tectonic structures, fractures and faults, generally in orthogonal networks.
Long, almost straight sections of the Cambongo-Negunza River are further testimonies of these influences (Cretaceous Quaternary).
The coastal flattening surface, including the raised beaches (altitudes of about 40 to 100m), scraping land from the Sedimentary Border and the Old Massif, gradually rises to the east, until a well-marked topographic limit, that of the base (altitudes of about 280 to 300m) of the western foothills of a NNE-SSW quartzite ridge with a dissimetric transversal profile - the Serra do Engelo, with altitudes between 1 400 and 1 700m -, also with flaws, underlined by thermal springs.
From that coastal surface, in the strip of crystalline rocks, some residual reliefs with characteristics of inselberge or island hills emerge, which raise several problems, such as the extension, to the west, of quartzite formations and their dismantling, the behavior of the same materials in the processes complexes of the genesis and evolution of the extensive regional line of NS escarpments against which the flattened surfaces of the coastal edge end. In the limestones close to the coast, the Cambongo-Negunza River has an underground route, through galleries and large caves, rising just before the small terminal plain. Not far from its valley, dolphins of various sizes and lapped surfaces can be observed. The climatic conditions reveal semi-aridity: the annual precipitation is less than 700mm, the evaporation is high, the vegetation cover is that of a mosaic of savannas, steppes and xerophytic balconies, with scattered trees or without them.

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